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Ready to perform!

Shaping the future

of animal health

Shaping the future

of animal health

Why are trace minerals important for cattle?

Why are trace minerals important for cattle?

  • Zinc, Copper, Manganese and Selenium are vital components of the antioxidant enzymes required to combat oxidative stress in the body.1,2 During normal oxygen metabolism, by products called free radicals are produced. Oxidative stress is an imbalance of free radicals and antioxidants which can lead to cell and tissue damage, impacting the health and performance of cattle.3
  • Trace minerals are essential for the body’s immune system and to optimise health.4,5,6

When the trace mineral status of cattle declines, immunity and enzyme function are compromised first, followed by a reduction in growth and fertility and finally a decrease in normal growth prior to clinical deficiency.7

  • Zinc, Copper, Manganese and Selenium are vital components of the antioxidant enzymes required to combat oxidative stress in the body.1,2 During normal oxygen metabolism, by products called free radicals are produced. Oxidative stress is an imbalance of free radicals and antioxidants which can lead to cell and tissue damage, impacting the health and performance of cattle.3
  • Trace minerals are essential for the body’s immune system and to optimise health.4,5,6

When the trace mineral status of cattle declines, immunity and enzyme function are compromised first, followed by a reduction in growth and fertility and finally a decrease in normal growth prior to clinical deficiency.7

Why and when might cattle need trace minerals

Why and when might cattle need trace minerals

Trace mineral requirements are primarily provided through the diet and various forms of oral supplementation.

Trace mineral requirements are primarily provided through the diet and various forms of oral supplementation.

There are several issues associated with this:

Low /variable intake

  • Most production systems in Ireland rely on grass and grass based forages. These are generally low in Zinc, Copper and Selenium.*
  • Intake can vary dramatically and dominant animals will consume more than submissive members of the herd.
  • At times of stress, appetite and intake is often reduced e.g. dairy cows at calving.

Poor bioavailability

  • Antagonist minerals such as Sulphur, Molybdenum, Iron and Calcium are often high in feed, forage and water. These act to tie up minerals, further reducing their absorption and availability.8
  • As a result of interactions which occur in the rumen, orally administered trace minerals are poorly absorbed.9

There are several issues associated with this:

Low /variable intake

  • Most production systems in Ireland rely on grass and grass based forages. These are generally low in Zinc, Copper and Selenium.*
  • Intake can vary dramatically and dominant animals will consume more than submissive members of the herd.
  • At times of stress, appetite and intake is often reduced e.g. dairy cows at calving.

Poor bioavailability

  • Antagonist minerals such as Sulphur, Molybdenum, Iron and Calcium are often high in feed, forage and water. These act to tie up minerals, further reducing their absorption and availability.8
  • As a result of interactions which occur in the rumen, orally administered trace minerals are poorly absorbed.9

Therefore the supply of trace minerals through the diet and oral supplementation can vary dramatically, as can demand.

At critical times of the production cycle e.g. calving, lactation, breeding and vaccination there is increased demand for trace minerals.

Therefore the supply of trace minerals through the diet and oral supplementation can vary dramatically, as can demand.

At critical times of the production cycle e.g. calving, lactation, breeding and vaccination there is increased demand for trace minerals.

So, even in apparently well supplemented animals, at these critical high demand periods, a trace mineral gap can occur between the trace minerals required for optimum health and performance, versus those available.

So, even in apparently well supplemented animals, at these critical high demand periods, a trace mineral gap can occur between the trace minerals required for optimum health and performance, versus those available.

Hence the need for strategic trace mineral top up ahead of these high demand periods to prepare cattle and help them perform at their best.

Hence the need for strategic trace mineral top up ahead of these high demand periods to prepare cattle and help them perform at their best.

What are the benefits

of topping up vital trace

minerals?

What are the benefits

of topping up vital trace

minerals?

Productivity and Profitability

Dairy Cows

One study involving 1,416 cows receiving above the recommended levels of trace minerals in their feed and treated with vital trace minerals by injection at high demand periods during transition, showed a 22% reduction in clinical mastitis and 23% reduction in subclinical mastitis.10

As each case of mastitis is estimated to cost €80 - €280 /cow/year11, topping up with vital trace minerals at critical times in the life cycle of the animal could have a significant impact on the profitability of your herd.

Productivity and Profitability

Dairy Cows

One study involving 1,416 cows receiving above the recommended levels of trace minerals in their feed and treated with vital trace minerals by injection at high demand periods during transition, showed a 22% reduction in clinical mastitis and 23% reduction in subclinical mastitis.10

As each case of mastitis is estimated to cost €80 - €280 /cow/year11, topping up with vital trace minerals at critical times in the life cycle of the animal could have a significant impact on the profitability of your herd.

Beef Cows

In another study beef cattle treated with vital trace minerals pre-partum and 30 days pre-breeding had a compressed calving distribution with 77.5% calving in the first 20 days versus 65% in the control group.12

Herds with a tighter calving interval have higher weaning weights and lower feed costs, so improving profitability.13

Beef Cows

In another study beef cattle treated with vital trace minerals pre-partum and 30 days pre-breeding had a compressed calving distribution with 77.5% calving in the first 20 days versus 65% in the control group.12

Herds with a tighter calving interval have higher weaning weights and lower feed costs, so improving profitability.13

Beef Cows

In another study beef cattle treated with vital trace minerals pre-partum and 30 days pre-breeding had a compressed calving distribution with 77.5% calving in the first 20 days versus 65% in the control group.12

Herds with a tighter calving interval have higher weaning weights and lower feed costs, so improving profitability.13

Beef Cows

In another study beef cattle treated with vital trace minerals pre-partum and 30 days pre-breeding had a compressed calving distribution with 77.5% calving in the first 20 days versus 65% in the control group.12

Herds with a tighter calving interval have higher weaning weights and lower feed costs, so improving profitability.13

At Vaccination

At

Vaccination

Cattle injected with vital trace minerals at vaccination have been shown to produce significantly higher antibody titres post vaccination.14

Cattle injected with vital trace minerals at vaccination have been shown to produce significantly higher antibody titres post vaccination.14

References

  1. Hough, M. A. & Hasnain, S. S. Structure of Fully Reduced Bovine Copper Zinc Superoxide Dismutase at 1.15 Å. Structure 11, 937–946 (2003).
  2. Rotruck JT, Pope AL, Ganther HE, Swanson AB, Hafeman DG and Hoekstra WG (1973) Selenium: biochemical role as a component of glutathione peroxidase. Science, 179 (4073):588–590.
  3. Celi, P. Oxidative stress in applied basic research and clinical practice (Eds. Armstrong, D., Mandelker, L. & Vajdovich, P.). Humana Press, 191–232 (2011).
  4. Suttle N, Mineral Nutrition of Livestock, 4th Edition.
  5. Hogan JS, Smith KL, Weiss WP, Todhunter DA and Schockey WL (1990).Relationships among vitamin e, selenium, and bovine blood neutrophils. J Dairy Sci. 73:2372-2378.
  6. Swecker WS Jr (2014) Trace mineral feeding and assessment. Vet Clin NorthAm Food Anim Pract. 30(3):671-88.
  7. Adapted from Wikse S (1992). Beef cattle short course. In Texas A&M Vet Beef Cattle Short Course, College station, TX, USA.
  8. Arthington J (2003) Copper Antagonists in Cattle Nutrition. dairy.ifas.ufl. edu/rns/2003/Arthington.pdf https://extension.umn.edu/beef-nutrition/ managingsulfur-beef-cattle-feed-and-water#sulfur-sources-and- amounts-956760.
  9. Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle, National Research Council, Seventh Revised Edition, 2001.
  10. Machado VS, Bicalho MLS, Pereira RV, Caixeta LS, Knauer WA, Oikonomou G, Gilbert RO, Bicalho RC (2013). Effect of an injectable trace mineral supplement containing selenium,copper, zinc, and manganese on the health and production of lactating Holstein cows. Vet. J. 197:451-6.
  11. NADIS The importance of mastitis part 1. Author Richard Laven 2016. Teagasc Milk quality mastitis and SCC. Author Bernadette O’Brian.
  12. Mundell L.R, Jaeger, J.R, Waggoner, J.W, Stevenson J.S, Grieger ,D.M, Pacheco L.A, Bolte, J.W ,Aubel N.A, Eckerle, G.J, Macek ,M.J, Ensley, S.M, Havenga, L.J , Olson, K.C (2012) Effects of prepartum and postpartum injections of trace minerals on performance of beef cows and calves grazing native range. The Professional Animal Scientist 28, 82–88.
  13. https://www.fginsight.com/vip/vip/tighter-calving-period-improves-profitability- of-beef-herds-4069.
  14. Arthington J, Havenga L (2012) Effect of injectable trace minerals on the humoral immune response to multivalent vaccine administration in beef calves. Journal of Animal Science 90, 1966–1971.

References

  1. Hough, M. A. & Hasnain, S. S. Structure of Fully Reduced Bovine Copper Zinc Superoxide Dismutase at 1.15 Å. Structure 11, 937–946 (2003).
  2. Rotruck JT, Pope AL, Ganther HE, Swanson AB, Hafeman DG and Hoekstra WG (1973) Selenium: biochemical role as a component of glutathione peroxidase. Science, 179 (4073):588–590.
  3. Celi, P. Oxidative stress in applied basic research and clinical practice (Eds. Armstrong, D., Mandelker, L. & Vajdovich, P.). Humana Press, 191–232 (2011).
  4. Suttle N, Mineral Nutrition of Livestock, 4th Edition.
  5. Hogan JS, Smith KL, Weiss WP, Todhunter DA and Schockey WL (1990).Relationships among vitamin e, selenium, and bovine blood neutrophils. J Dairy Sci. 73:2372-2378.
  6. Swecker WS Jr (2014) Trace mineral feeding and assessment. Vet Clin NorthAm Food Anim Pract. 30(3):671-88.
  7. Adapted from Wikse S (1992). Beef cattle short course. In Texas A&M Vet Beef Cattle Short Course, College station, TX, USA.
  8. Arthington J (2003) Copper Antagonists in Cattle Nutrition. dairy.ifas.ufl. edu/rns/2003/Arthington.pdf https://extension.umn.edu/beef-nutrition/ managingsulfur-beef-cattle-feed-and-water#sulfur-sources-and- amounts-956760.
  9. Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle, National Research Council, Seventh Revised Edition, 2001.
  10. Machado VS, Bicalho MLS, Pereira RV, Caixeta LS, Knauer WA, Oikonomou G, Gilbert RO, Bicalho RC (2013). Effect of an injectable trace mineral supplement containing selenium,copper, zinc, and manganese on the health and production of lactating Holstein cows. Vet. J. 197:451-6.
  11. NADIS The importance of mastitis part 1. Author Richard Laven 2016. Teagasc Milk quality mastitis and SCC. Author Bernadette O’Brian.
  12. Mundell L.R, Jaeger, J.R, Waggoner, J.W, Stevenson J.S, Grieger ,D.M, Pacheco L.A, Bolte, J.W ,Aubel N.A, Eckerle, G.J, Macek ,M.J, Ensley, S.M, Havenga, L.J , Olson, K.C (2012) Effects of prepartum and postpartum injections of trace minerals on performance of beef cows and calves grazing native range. The Professional Animal Scientist 28, 82–88.
  13. https://www.fginsight.com/vip/vip/tighter-calving-period-improves-profitability- of-beef-herds-4069.
  14. Arthington J, Havenga L (2012) Effect of injectable trace minerals on the humoral immune response to multivalent vaccine administration in beef calves. Journal of Animal Science 90, 1966–1971.